Organizational structure and procedure barriers to obedizing Philippine higher education: Implications to policies and practice

  • Januard Denola Dagdag Isabela State University, Philippines
Keywords: outcome-based, obedizing, barriers, higher education, policies, Philippines

Abstract

The claim that higher education institutions are outcome-based education-aligned or obedized necessitates evidence in practice. This policy perspectives article discusses the implications of the following prevailing inputs-based structures and procedures to the implementation of outcome-based education in Philippine higher education: (1) segmenting learning time and prescheduling examination; (2) covering curriculum contents over achieving desired outcomes; (3) imposing regular classroom meetings; (4) quantifying inputs targets; (5) quantifying learning performance using a mark; (6) aligning assessments with the licensure examination; (7) and screening and clustering students through a test. The paper offers insights necessary for strengthening policies and practice to obedizing tertiary education in the Philippines and beyond.

References

Abdaoui, M. (2018). Strategies for avoiding cheating and preserving academic integrity in tests. Alkhitab w el-Tawassol Journal, 4(1). Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2JXEE3G

Alata, E. J. P. (2019). Evaluation of outcomes-based private junior high school English curricula. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 11(1), 43-64. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/34kA5da

An, I. L. (2014). Impact of outcome-based education instruction to accountancy students in an Asian University. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 1(5), 48-52. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2UZTvkx

Barr, R. B. & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 13-25. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3b3JrMY

Beard, C. & Wilson, J. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook for educators and trainers (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.

Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th ed.). Berkshire: McGraw Hill, Open University Press.

Borsoto, L. D., Lescano, J. D., Maquimot, N. L., Santorce, M. J., Simbulan, A. F., Pagcaliwagan (2014). Status of implementation and usefulness of outcomes-based education in the engineering department of an Asian university. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research, 2(4), 14-25. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2JSWe8S

Bryan, A., & Volchenkova, K. N. (2018). Blended learning: Definition, models, implications for higher education. Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Ser. Education. Educational Sciences, 8(2), 24-30.
doi: 10.14529/ped160204

Chantrell, G. (2015). Challenges, as perceived by teachers, to learning outdoors (Unpublished Thesis). Vancouver Island University. Retrieved from
file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/OBE%202020%2017.pdf

CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 46, Series of 2012. Policy-Standard to Enhance Quality Assurance (QA) in Philippine Higher Education through an Outcomes-based and Typology-based QA. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3b2FckM

Commission on Higher Education (2014). Handbook on Typology, Outcomes-based Education, and Institutional Sustainable Assessment. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/39Xowd9

Dela Cruz, R.Z., & Dela Cruz, R.O. (2017). Educators’ attitude towards outcome-based information technology education in the Philippines. i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 13(4), 14-21.
https://doi.org/10.26634/jet.13.4.12400

Dagdag, J. D. (2019). Mathematics educators’ perspectives on outcome-based education: Alignment with the learning paradigm of tertiary education in the Philippines. Journal of Thai Interdisciplinary Research, 14(3), 1-8. Retrieved from
file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/205117-Article%20Text-633494-2-10-20190805.pdf

Dagdag, J. D. & Cardona, R. S. (2018). Perspectives on outcomes-based assessment (OBA) among college mathematics educators in northeastern Luzon, Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 6(2), 18-25. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2JpbPg8

Dagdag, J., Cuizon, H., & Bete, A. (2019). College students’ problems and their link to academic performance: Basis for needs-driven student programs. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, 9(2), 54-65. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/39UWvD0

Davis, S. F., Drinan, P. F., & Gallant, T. B. (2009). Cheating in school: What we know and what we can do. United Kingdom: Willey-Blackwell.

De Guzman, M. F. D., Edaño, D. C., & Umayan, Z. D. (2017). Understanding the essence of the outcomes-based education (OBE) and knowledge of its implementation in a technological university in the Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 5(4), 64-71. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3eaYJl1

DfES Publication (2006). Learning outside the classroom: Manifesto. Department for Education and Skills. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2UUZRSk

Espiritu, J. L. & Budhrani, K. (March, 2015). Implementing an outcome-based education (OBE) framework in the teaching of industrial Psychology. DLSU Research Congress. De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. Retrieved from
file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Implementing_an_Outcome-Based_Education%20(1).pdf

Gurukkal, R. (2018). Towards Outcome-based Education. Higher Education for the Future, 5(1), 1–3. Retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631117740456

Hanover Research (2012). High expectations and student success. Hanover Research. Washington, DC 20006. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2R3FvUw

Kaput, K. (2018). Evidence for student-centered learning. Education Evolving. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2UQOfQe

Karim, N. A., & Yin, K. Y. (2013). Outcome-based education: An approach for teaching and learning development. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, 3(1), 26-35. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2XmWchG

Khanna, R., & Mehrotra, D. (2019). The roadmap for quality improvement from traditional through competency based (CBE) towards outcome based education (OBE) in dentistry. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 9(2), 139-142. Retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2019.02.004

Laguador, J. M. & Dotong, C. I. (2014). Knowledge versus practice on the outcomes-based education implementation of the engineering faculty members in LPU. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 3(1), 63-74. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/39iKAyA

Lalima, & Dangwal, K. L. (2017). Blended learning: An innovative approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 129-136.
https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050116

Lee, J. H., Ryoo, S. C., & Lee, S. H. (2014). From multiple choices to performance assessment: Theory, practice, and strategy. KDI School of Policy and Management Working Paper Series. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/34rmOzo

Macayan, J. V. (2017). Implementing outcome-based education (OBE) framework: Implications for assessment of students’ performance. Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 8(1), 1-10. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2URiuoV

Maher, A. (2004). Learning outcomes in higher education: Implications for curriculum design and student learning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 3(2), 46-54. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3e5TV0l

Nakkeeran, R., Babu, R., Manimaran, R., & Gnanasivam, P. (2018). Importance of outcome-based education (OBE) to advance educational quality and enhance global mobility. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 119(17), 1483-1492. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/2w3H1yz

Ramoroka, N. J. (2007). Educators’ understanding of the premises underpinning outcomes-based education and its impact in their classroom practices. University of Pretoria. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3arJz8z

Pepito, T. F. (2019). Perspectives on outcome-based education among faculty members teaching business courses at a Philippine university. The Palawan Scientist, 11. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/34ombH5

Perlman, D. J. (2015). The Teacher Care Project: Enhancing motivation, engagement and effort of a-motivated students. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, 5(1), 4-16. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/193-Article%20Text-284-1-10-20181005.pdf

Singal, N. & Swann, M. (2009). Children’s perceptions of themselves as learner inside and outside school. Research Papers in Education. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671520903281617

Spady, W. (1994). Outcome-based Education: Critical issues and answers. American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, Va. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/33TqWs0

Tagg, J. (Winter 2006). Shaping form to function: The challenge of institutional transformation. On Teaching & Learning: The Collaboration for the Advancement of College Teaching & Learning, 20(2). Retrieved from
file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Collaboration-winter06%20(3).pdf

Tang, C. & Biggs, J. (1999). Assessment by portfolio. in D. Watkins, C. Tang, J. Biggs & R. Kuisma (Eds.). Evaluation of the Student Experience Project: Vol. 2. Assessment of University Students in Hong Kong: How and Why, Assessment Portfolio, Students’ Grading (pp. 29-78). City University of Hong Kong, Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.

Ungar, M., Dumond, C., & McDonald, W. (2005). Risk, resilience and outdoor programmes for at-risk children. Journal of Social Work, 5(3), 319-338. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3c4u07u

Villaluz, S. S. (2017). Awareness on the advantages and disadvantages of outcome based education among graduating Psychology students. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 224-234. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/39TKuO1

Webb, N. L. (1997). Criteria for alignment of expectations and assessment in mathematics and science education. (Research Monograph No. 6). Washington: National Institute for Science Education Publications.

White, R. (2012). A sociocultural investigation of the efficacy of outdoor education to improve learner engagement. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 17(1), 13-23. Retrieved from
https://bit.ly/3c0QztB
Published
2020-05-21
How to Cite
Dagdag, J. D. (2020). Organizational structure and procedure barriers to obedizing Philippine higher education: Implications to policies and practice. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 10(1), 27-43. Retrieved from https://ejournal.upsi.edu.my/index.php/JRPPTTE/article/view/2891