The effect of mother tongue-based multilingual education on the Science achievement and metacognitive learning orientations of Ilocano grade 3 pupils: Implications for policy and practice
The implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines is being criticized by stakeholders whether it is a better approach for pupils in the primary levels than the monolingual-Second language (MSL) approach using Tagalog. Several studies in the past decade attempted to test the effect of MTB-MLE on pupils' learning on different subject areas. However, there is yet no available study on the effect of MTB-MLE on Science learning variables such as metacognitive learning orientations and achievement among Grade 3 learners whose mother tongue is Ilocano. This quasi-experimental study was conducted to test the effect of MTB-MLE on the academic achievement, metacognition, learning processes, and self-efficacy of Ilocano Grade 3 pupils in Science learning. Fifteen (15) Ilocano pupils were randomly selected from each of two elementary schools of a district in Isabela Province, Philippines. The two groups were taught in Science using Tagalog-only (MSL) and Ilocano-Tagalog (MTB-MLE), respectively. Pre and post-assessment were conducted to gauge the pupils’ traits in Science. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, analysis of covariance, and paired samples t-test were used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference between the achievement, metacognition, self-efficacy, and learning processes of the MTB-MLE and the MSL pupils in Science. Moreover, the learning processes of the MSL pupils such as monitoring-evaluating-planning, learning risk awareness, and control of concentration did not significantly improve. Therefore, this study recommends the implementation of MTB-MLE in the primary level, and provides implications for policy and practice for better learning outcomes.
Abrea, A. C., Ortua, E. C. L., & Robles, R. L. (2020). Experiences of teachers teaching grade 4 pupils with mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE): Inputs to policy development and teacher training for MTB-MLE. Asia Pacific Higher Education Research Journal, 7(1), 1-13.
Alcudia, F., Bilbao, P., Dequilla, M. A. C., Germinal, A., Rosana, D., Violeta, M. (2016). Mother tongue for teaching and learning. 776 Aurora Blvd., Cor. Boston Street, Cubao, Quezon City, Metro Manila: Lorimar Publishing, INC.
Arola, S. (2017, March). Why is mother tongue so important for language learning? Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2R9Eaic
Arzadon, C. et Al. (2020, August). 10 reasons why mother tongues in schools should be saved. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/33wc57g
Awopetu, A. V. (2016). Impact of mother tongue on children’s learning abilities in early childhood classroom. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 233(2016), 58- 63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.131
Ball, J. (2014, February). Children Learn Better in their Mother Tongue. Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3f847qh
Behrmann, T. (2018). Evaluating the effects of mother tongue on Math and Science instruction of secondary school students: An action research study (Unpublished Dissertation). Capella University.
Beka, M. B. (2016). Mother tongue as a medium of instruction: Benefits and challenges. International Journal of Language, Literature & Art Studies, 4(1), 16-26.
Bete, A. O. (2020). Students’ knowledge and process skills in learning grade-8 chemistry. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers & Teacher Education, 10(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.37134/jrpptte.vol10.1.1.2020
Busari, O., Tatira, L., & Madzudzo, A. (2018). Teaching Science through the Mother Tongue: A Case Study of two Schools in Zimbabwe. Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education, 8(2), 66-77. Retrieved from https://journals.udsm.ac.tz/index.php/jlle/article/view/1269
Burton, L. A. (2013). Mother tongue-based multilingual education in the Philippines: Studying top-down policy implementation from the bottom-up (Unpublished Dissertation). University of Minnesota.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. 2007. Research methods in education. Routledge.
Dahm, R. & De Angelis, G. (2018). The role of mother tongue literacy in language learning and mathematical learning: is there a multilingual benefit for both?. International Journal of Multilingualism, Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 15 (2), 194-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1359275
Espada, J. T., Bayrante, J. R., Mocorro, R. E., Vinculado, O. P., Vivero, P. M., Bongcaras, L. L., & Labarrette, R. A. (2017). Challenges in the implementation of the mother tongue-based multilingual education program: A case study. Research Journal of English Language and Literature, 5(4), 510-527.
Ezeokoli, F. O. & Ugwu, E. O. (2019). Parents’, teachers’ and students’ beliefs about the use and study of mother-tongue in the secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 7(2), 82-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.7n.2p.82
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction. Longman Publishing.
Grabbe, J. W. (2015). Implications of Experimental versus Quasi-Experimental Designs. In: Strang K. D. (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Research Design in Business and Management. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137484956_10
Gorjian, B., & Sayyadian, M. (2017). A comparative study on bilinguals and monolingual learner reading comprehension. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 3(1), 9-16.
Han, J., & Park, K. (2017). Monolingual or bilingual approach: The effectiveness of teaching methods in second language classroom. Purdue Languages and Cultures Conference 2. https://bit.ly/2RmCYbc
Jago, B. (2019, October). Monolingual vs. Multilingual Classes – Teaching English Abroad. Trinity CertTESOL. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3hEfaL1
Jaikumar, M. (2018, July 31). Quasi Experimental Design [PowerPoint Slides]. slideshare. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3eKZWSd
Jostol, M., Mapa, N., & Yu, L. S. (2020, December). Mother tongue is home: Reflections on MTB-MLE. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3yeS9nt
Kioko, A. (2015, January). Why schools should teach young learners in home language. British Council. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3tMaJQB
Lari, M. (2020, May). What are the advantages of bilingual method?. FINDANYANSWER. https://bit.ly/3w7p3os
Kioko, A. N., Ndung’u, R. W., Njoroge, M. C., & Mutiga, J. (2014). Mother tongue and education in Africa: Publicising the reality. Multilingual Education, 4(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13616-014-0018-x
Manabat, A. (2016, October). DepEd implements mother tongue-based learning to make lessons more interactive, easier for pupils. Business Mirror. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2SHMar2
Mohamed, O. I., & Lobo, Z. J. (2019). A comparative study between monolingual and bilingual teaching methodologies of English in a Health Sciences University in the United Arab Emirates. English Language Teaching, 13(1), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v13n1p73
Mwakira, G. (2021). The use of mother tongue language and its effect on academic performance in public schools in Kenya. International Journal of Linguistics, 1(1), 20-27. Retrieved from https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/IJL/article/view/1240
Namanya, S. C. (2017). The effect of mother tongue-based multilingual education on the English literacy of children in Silang, Philippines. International Forum Journal, 20(2), 160-177. Retrieved from https://journals.aiias.edu/info/article/view/70
Perez, N. B. (2019). A comparative study of the MTB-MLE programs in southeast Asian countries. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 3(6), 47-55.
Piper, B., Zuilkowski, S. S., Kwayumba, D., & Oyanga, A. (2018). Examining the secondary effects of mother-tongue literacy instruction in Kenya: Impacts on student learning in English, Kiswahili, and mathematics. International Journal of Educational Development, 59, 110-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.10.002
Ramamoorthy, S. (2020, August). 8 reasons why the NEP’s move to teaching in mother tongue could transform teaching and learning in India. India Today. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3yb8x8D
Ricablanca, J. (2014). Effectiveness of mother tongue-based instruction on pupils’ achievement in Mathematics (Unpublished Manuscript). Central Mindanao University.
Rojas, S. M. (2016, March). Living and Learning the local language is a call. DepEd, Division of Malaybalay City. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/33KSMHm
Thomas, G., Anderson, D. Nashon, S. (2008). Development of an Instrument Designed to Investigate Elements of Science Students’ Metacognition, Self- Efficacy and Learning Processes: The SEMLI- S. International Journal of Science Education, 30(13), 17, 1701-1724. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690701482493
Tomblin, B. (2019, August). The importance of mother tongue in education. Independent Education Today. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3hnciSx
Vela, J. D. (2015). Primary Science Teaching to Bicolano Students: In Bicol, English or Filipino?. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(1), 8-15. http://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v4i1.4486
Villaruz, M. G. & Perez, D. (2020). Mother tongue-based multilingual education of indigenous peoples learners in Southern Palawan, Philippines. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(5), 85-101. Retrieved from https://www.qjssh.com/index.php/qjssh/article/view/44
White, H. & Sabarwal, S. (2014, September). Quasi- experimental design and methods. Methodological Briefs. Impact Evaluation No. 8. UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti. Florence, Italy. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/3w7aCk0
Copyright (c) 2021 Jerome G. Santiago, Januard Denola Dagdag
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.