Design thinking for virtual teaching of world history towards 21st century skills development


  • Charmen D. Ramos San Jose National High School San Jose, Talibon, Bohol, PHILIPPINES
  • Reynaldo B. Inocian Cebu Normal University, Cebu City, PHILIPPINES



Design Thinking, 21st Century skills, world history, virtual teaching, Philippines


The study explored the effectiveness of Design Thinking as a virtual method of teaching World History in developing the 21st century skills of critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity.  The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest two-group design among 40 students from San Jose National High School, Division of Bohol, which compares the changes that occur within the experimental and control group by measuring the variable at two time periods. The experimental group had undergone the Design Thinking process of empathizing, defining, ideating, prototyping, testing, and implementing; while the control group was taught using Lecture Discussion. Results confirmed that the implementation of Design Thinking in teaching yielded a significant effect to critical thinking, collaboration, communication and creativity among the respondents. Notwithstanding the fact that the experiment affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the slow internet connection in the municipality, and the absence of a face-to-face interaction, it showed a significant difference in the test scores of the experimental group before and after the intervention was utilized in the 4Cs for the 21st century. A contextualized DT was crafted to serve as a guide to educators as regards to its proper use that fits the actual virtual teaching scenarios of a regular classroom in the Philippines.


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How to Cite

Ramos, C. D., & Inocian, R. B. (2022). Design thinking for virtual teaching of world history towards 21st century skills development. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 12(1), 15–33.