A Review of Reading Strategies and Models in Learning and Teaching of English as a Foreign Language

  • Mansour Amini Department of English Language and Communication, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Ali Zahabi School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Thailand
  • Davoud Amini Department of English Language and Literature, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
  • Seyed Saber Alavi Hosseini The MA (TESOL) Department, International College, Payap University, Thailand
Keywords: English Language, language learning, model, reading strategies


Reading skill is a text-oriented cognitive capability applied when interacting with the written text. It is an essential skill that affects language learning and even academic achievement. Despite research on language learning has focused and contributed to the expansion of English language reading research, EFL students and even teachers are often unaware of the reader-oriented strategies used in learning and teaching reading. Existence of this gap, however, does not justify the idea of having a sole model for reading across various genres and types of assignments as it seems unrealistic. Therefore, highlighting the key models in the area, this article critically reviews the previous studies conducted on reading strategies and reading comprehension skill and proposes a framework for exploring reading strategies in teaching and learning of English as a Foreign Language. This review may have some theoretical implications for the learners, instructors and researchers in learning, teaching, and conducting research on reading strategies.


Download data is not yet available.


Aarnoutse, C., & Schellings, G. (2003). Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation, Educational Studies, 29(4), 387-409.

Akyel, A., & Erçetin, G. (2009). Hypermedia reading strategies employed by advanced learners of English. System, 37, 136-152.

Alavi, S. S., Voon Foo1, T. C., & Amini, M. (2015). L2 learners’ proficiency development through noticing feedback. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 2 (5) 25-41.

Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Al-Seyabi, F., & Tuzlukova, V. (2015). Investigating EFL reading problems and strategies in post-basic schools and university foundation programmes: A study in the Omani context. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 11(2), 35-51.

Amini, D., & Amini, M. (2012). Teacher and learner in humanistic language teaching. Language in India, 12(7), 100-112.

Amini, M., Alavi, S.S., & Zahabi, A. (2018). The efficacy of procedural and declarative learning strategies on EFL students’ oral proficiency. The Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances, 4(1), 45-61.

Amini, D., Ayari, S., & Amini, M. (2016). The effect of flow state on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 3(5), 9-11.

Barrett, T. C. (1972). Taxonomy of reading comprehension. Reading 360 Monograph. Lexington, MA: Ginn & Co.

Barton, D., & Hamilton, M. (1998). Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community. London/New York: Routledge.

Block, E. (2005). The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 436-494.

Bojovic, M. (2010). Reading skills and reading comprehension in English for Specific Purposes. Proccedings of The International Language Conference on The Importance of Learning Professional Foreign Languages for Communication between Cultures, September 2010 Celje, Slovenia.

Cadena, Claudia Margarita Zurek. Effectiveness of reading strategies and improving reading comprehension in young ESC readers. (M.A. Dissertation). Universidad Del Norte, 2006.

Carrell, P. L., Gajdusek, L. & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. Instructional Science, 26, 97- 112.
Chastain, K. (1971). The development of modern language skills: Theory to practice. Philadelphia: Center for Curriculum Development.

Chen, K. T. C., & Chen, S.C.L. (2015). The use of EFL reading strategies among the high school students in Taiwan. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 15(2), 156-166.

Cohen, A.D. (1998). Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. Essex, U.K.: Longman.

Day, R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dole, J. A., Brown, K. J., & Trathen, W. (1996). The effects of strategy instruction on the comprehension performance of at-risk students. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(1). 62-88.

Duke, N. & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. Farstrup & J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.) (pp. 205-242). Newark DE: International Reading Association

El-Kaumy, A.S.K. (2004). Metacognition and reading comprehension: current trends in theory and research. 3(1), 45-52. Retrieved from online at www.eric.ed.gov

Goodman, K. S. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist, 6, 126-135.

Grabe, W. (1988). Interactive approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grabe, W, & L. F. Stoller. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Hamza, Al-Jarrah, & Nur Salina Ismail, (2018). Reading Comprehension
Strategies Among EFL learners in higher learning institutions. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 9(2)315-328.

Hsu, S. C. (2006). The reading strategies used by EFL technical students. Journal of Nanya, 26, 159-174.

Huang, S. (1997). Learning strategies of memorizing a conversation text. In J. Katchen (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on English Teaching, 283-295. Taiwan: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.

James, O.E., Amini, M., & Yaqubi, M. (2020). English language anxiety: A case study on undergraduate ESL students in Malaysia, Studies in Linguistics and Literature, 4(1), 9-39.

Li, S., & Munby, H. (1996). Metacognitive Strategies in second language academic reading: A qualitative investigation. English for Specific Purposes, 15 (3), 199-216.

Lunzer, E., Waite, M., & Dolan, T. (1979). Comprehension and comprehension tests. In E. Lunzer, & K. Gardner, editors, The effective use of reading. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Mahmud. T. (2008). Teaching reading strategies used by ESL teachers that facilitate teaching and learning reading. (Unpublished Bachelor’s Dissertation). Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.

McKay, P. (2006). Assessing Young Language Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meniado, J. (2016). Metacognitive reading strategies, motivation, and reading comprehension performance of Saudi EFL students. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 9(3), 117-129.

Moreillon, J. (2007). Collaborative strategies for teaching Reading comprehension. Chicago: American Library Association.

Muayanah, M. (2014). Reading comprehension questions developed by English teacher of senior high schools in Surabaya. Jurnal Sosial Humaniora, 7(1), 20-44.

Noor, N. M. (2011). Reading habits and preferences of EFL post graduates: A case
study. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics,1(1), 1-9.

O’Donnell, L. (2013). The effects of reading strategies use on the formative and summative test scores of Thai EFL university learners. Frontiers of Language and Teaching, 4, 88-98.

Olshavsky, J. E. (1977). Reading as problem solving: An investigation of strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 4, 654-674.

Omaggio, M. A. (1993). Teaching language in context. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

Oxford, R., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and instructional issues. Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404–419.

Pritchard, R. (1990). The effects of cultural schemata on reading processing strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 25 (4), 273-295.

Sattar, S. & Salehi, H. (2014). The Role of Teaching Reading Strategies in Enhancing Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Current Life Sciences. 4. 10922-10928.

Scheid, K. (1993). Helping Students become strategic learners: Guidelines for teaching. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the global awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29, 431-449.

Singhal, M. (2001). Reading proficiency, reading strategies, metacognitive awareness and L2 readers. The Reading Matrix, 1(1), 1-23.

Smith, F. (2004). Understanding Reading 6th edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Solak, E. & Altay, F. (2014). The Reading Strategies Used by Prospective English Teachers in Turkish ELT Context. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 1(3), 78-89.

Taylor, G. (2009). A student’s Writing Guide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Williams, E. & Moran, C. (1989). Reading in a foreign language at intermediate and advanced levels with particular reference to English. Language Teaching, 22, 217-28.

Yang, Y. (2002). Reassessing readers’ comprehension monitoring. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(1), 18-42.

Yusof, A., Shah, P. M., & Bataineh, K. B. (2007). Malaysian EFL Students’ Use of Reading Strategies. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Annual Review, 2(4), 269-274.
How to Cite
Amini, M., Zahabi, A., Amini, D., & Hosseini, S. S. A. (2020). A Review of Reading Strategies and Models in Learning and Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. AJELP: Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 8(2), 14-26. https://doi.org/10.37134/ajelp.vol8.2.2.2020