Written Corrective Feedback on the Use of Conjunctions among Malaysian ESL Learners


  • Evon Yin Cheng Lee Centre for Languages SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Tam Shu Sim Faculty of Languages and Linguistics Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




Written corrective feedback, metalinguistic feedback, conjunctions, ESL writing, college writing


This mixed-methods study explored the influence of metalinguistic corrective feedback on thirty Malaysian ESL learners’ appropriate and inappropriate use of conjunctions in their writing practice. Data were derived from three sources: students’ essays, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The categories of conjunctions explored in this study were additive conjunctions, causal conjunctions, temporal conjunctions, and adversative conjunctions. The percentages of appropriate and inappropriate use of conjunctions were tabulated based on three writing assignments (expository essay, cause and effect essay, and problem-solution essay). The results showed a positive influence of metalinguistic corrective feedback on the ESL learners’ use of conjunctions. The findings from the survey questionnaire revealed positive perceptions in three main aspects: the helpfulness and preferences of coded metalinguistic corrective feedback and their feelings receiving the feedback. Additionally, the efficacy of metalinguistic corrective feedback was explored in the questionnaire and interviews with the feedback perceived as a mediator tool, a trigger for noticing, a correction aid for conjunctions use in writing and as a tool to promote independent learning.


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Author Biographies

Evon Yin Cheng Lee, Centre for Languages SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Evon Lee Yin Cheng is a lecturer/programme-coordinator with the Centre for Languages, SEGi University. Her studies specifically focused on Written-corrective feedback in the field of English language learning and teaching. She supervises undergraduate students in their final year projects. She is an advocate for student learning process in a natural and proactive setting and employs self- error correction approaches in her courses.

Tam Shu Sim, Faculty of Languages and Linguistics Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tam Shu Sim is a senior lecturer with the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics, University of Malaya. She publishes in the field of Applied Linguistics specifically, language learning, CALL and second language acquisition. She supervises both MA and PhD students. She believes firmly in learner-centred approaches and adopts project-based and problem-based learning methodologies in her courses.


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How to Cite

Lee, E. Y. C., & Sim, T. S. (2019). Written Corrective Feedback on the Use of Conjunctions among Malaysian ESL Learners. AJELP: Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 7(1), 15–24. https://doi.org/10.37134/ajelp.vol7.1.2.2019